The best way of running the programs listed below is by using the command line. Here, you have some links to command line tutorials on different operating systems:
BP&P program implements a series of Bayesian inference methods under the multispecies coalescent model with and without introgression. The analyses may include estimation of population size (theta’s) and species divergence times (tau’s), species tree estimation, species delimitation, and estimation of cross-species introgression intensity. We suggest that you get
BP&P version 4 as it contains all the functionalities of version 3.4 but runs much faster and supports multiple threads. Also, the multispecies-coalescent-with-introgression (MSci) model is implemented in
BP&P v4 only, and not in
BP&P v3.4. The same control file works for both versions.
The source code, installation guidelines, and tutorial for the latest version of
BP&P can be found in the links below:
BP&Pversion 4, GitHub repository for source code.
BP&Pversion 4, manual.
BP&Pversion 4, installation instructions.
The source code and tutorial for the previous
BP&P v3.4 is available in the links below:
BP&Pversion 3, source code.
BP&Pversion 3, source code and executables for Mac OS X 7 and later.
bpp3.4a.tgzincludes the source code for all platforms, as well as executables for Windows.
.gzwhen the download finishes, you should change it back to
bpp3.4.macosx.tgz(source code and executables for Mac OS X 7 and later).
If you have questions about either
BP&P v3.4 or
BP&P v4, please post them at the BP&P google group site here. Before posting a question, however, please use the search tool in the google groups site to make sure that other users have not already asked your query.
Bruce Rannala has written a
BPP GUI. The executables are for Windows and Mac OS X. You can use this to prepare the
BP&P control files, and also read in the species trees in the MCMC sample file, produced by either
BP&P v3.4 or
BP&P v4. Please download the GUI from Bruce’s group web site here.
If you are using
BP&BP, please cite:
Also, please cite the following papers depending on the method you use:
BP&P, please read the following tutorials:
Also, please read the 2015 tutorial on
Mario dos Reis has written the
bppr R package, which can use the
BP&P output to do the following:
BP&Pphylogeny to geological time: tutorial available here.
BP&P: tutorial here.
An introduction to the
bppr R package can be read here.
The program 3s implements likelihood ratio tests to test for gene flow between two closely related species.
The latest release (Dalquen et al. 2017) includes several improvements over previous versions:
3suses an asymmetric IM model with θ1 ≠ θ2 and M12 ≠ M21.
3scan take advantage of multi-core architectures to speed up computation.
The source code is available here.
You can use
3s as it is, without any additional libraries installed. Please use the following command (adapted to your system) to compile the source code:
gcc -O3 -o 3s 3s.c tools.c lfun3s.c -lm
Nevertheless, we recommend installing the GNU Scientific library (GSL) as this will speed up computation of P(t) significantly, even if you run the program on a single core. Once GSL is installed, you can compile
3s. There are three different commands you should run depending on how your system is set up:
No extra commands are needed to compile
3s after installing the GSL:
gcc -O3 -DUSE_GSL -o 3s 3s.c tools.c lfun3s.c -lm -lgsl -lgslcblas
You might have to specify the location of GSL using the
gcc -O3 -DUSE_GSL -I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib -o 3s 3s.c tools.c lfun3s.c -lm -lgsl -lgslcblas
If you want to run 3s on multiple cores, you can compile the software with OpenMP support:
gcc -O3 -DUSE_GSL -I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib -o 3s -fopenmp 3s.c tools.c lfun3s.c -lm -lgsl -lgslcblas
3s should work out-of-the-box on current Linux systems with the GNU tool chain. On Mac OS X and Windows, you may need a compiler with OpenMP support.
If you use
3s, please cite the following papers:
At the moment, there are no tutorials available for this software.
PAML is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA or protein sequences using maximum likelihood. It is maintained by Ziheng Yang and distributed under the GNU GPL v3. ANSI C source codes are distributed for UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X. Executables are provided for Windows. PAML is not good for tree making, although it may be used to estimate parameters and test hypotheses to study the evolutionary process once you have reconstructed trees using other programs such as
Before running any of the programs included in the PAML software, please read the PAML manual in PDF format here, where a detailed explanation of how to run the programs is given. If you have any questions, please first read the FAQs document as they might be answered in this document. If not, please use the search tool in the PAML discussion group here to check whether your questions have already been asked by other PAML users. If you still cannot find an answer to your questions, please post them in the PAML discussion group here.
Now, follow the commands below:
# Move to the cloned repository. Make sure you have cloned it in the correct # location of your local disk. cd paml # If there are executable files for Windows, you may remove them. rm bin/*.exe # Move to the `src` directory to compile the software. cd src make -f Makefile # List all the compiled programs that are part of PAML and # remove unnecessary files. ls -lF rm *.o # Create a `bin` directory, which you can then export to your PATH. mkdir ../bin # Move the compiled programs to `bin`. mv baseml basemlg chi2 codeml evolver infinitesites mcmctree pamp yn00 ../bin # Test that you can run some PAML programs such as BASEML, CODEML, or evolver. bin/baseml bin/codeml bin/evolver
bindirectory or include the executable files in a general
bindirectory for all the software that you have on your local disk, e.g.,
~/bin. Whatever you decide to do, please modify your path to include the folder with the PAML programs in the initialization file for the shell. You can use
more /etc/passwdto see which shell you run. Below, you can find some notes for the C shell and bash shell. There are other shells, but these two are commonly used.
/bin/cshfor your account in the
/etc/passwdfile, you are running the C shell, and the initialization file is
.cshrcin your root folder.
You can use
more .cshrc to see its content if it is present. Use a text editor (such as
SimpleText, etc.) to edit (or create, if one does not exist) the file, by running something like this:
Now, insert the following line:
# Please change <path_to_bin> with the path on your local disk. set path = ($path . <path_to_bin>/bin)
The different fields are separated by spaces. Here,
. means the current folder, and
~/ means your root folder, and
$path is whatever folders are already in the path.
/bin/bashin the file
/etc/passwdfor your account, you are running the bash shell, and the initialization file is
ls -a ~to see whether you have one or another).
Now, use a text editor to open
.bashrc and insert the following line:
# Please change <path_to_bin> with the path on your local disk. PATH=$PATH:./:<path_to_bin>/bin/
The command above changes the environment variable
PATH. The different fields are separated by colon
:, without spaces. If the file does not exist, please create one (e.g., run
cdto the folder which contains your data files and run PAML programs there. If the path is properly set, you will be able to run any of the PAML programs by just typing the file name (e.g., unless you have modified the executable file names,
To download the latest version of PAML, please clone the PAML GitHub repository here. You can download a zip compressed file (click here to automatically start the download) and then decompress it on your local disk. Alternatively, you can use the command line:
# Open a terminal on the location where you want to save # the PAML software. git clone https://github.com/abacus-gene/paml.git
Now, you can use either the Windows Linux Subsystem, the Git Bash, the Windows Power Shell, or other alternatives to start a command-line shell that you may have installed on your PC to compile the PAML programs:
# Open a terminal where you have cloned the PAML repository. cd paml cd src make -f Makefile # List all the compiled programs that are part of PAML and # remove unnecessary files. ls -lF rm *.o # Create a `bin` directory, which you can then export to your PATH. mkdir ../bin # Move the compiled programs to `bin`. mv baseml basemlg chi2 codeml evolver infinitesites mcmctree pamp yn00 ../bin
If you export the PATH to the directory
bin, you will be able to run the programs from any location of your local disk without needing to type the absolute path.
The instructions below explain how to download older versions of PAML compatible with Mac OS X (G5 compiler) and Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP/Vista 7.
We have decided to keep this section here in case users need to follow the installation steps for the OSs detailed above. However, we discourage the installation of older versions as they are out of date. Users may follow the step-by-step installation/compilation guidelines below, but always using the latest version of the PAML software available here.
IMPORTANT: Please note that the latest PAML version is on the PAML GitHub repository here. The notes below are for an earlier version, PAML v4.8a. If you would like to use the latest version on Windows but you cannot compile the latest PAML release following the details above, please post an issue here so we can assist you with this matter.
A compiled version for Mac OS X of an older version of PAML can be downloaded download here: PAML v4.8a here
If you have a G5 or if you would like to compile the programs in the PAML software yourself, please follow the notes below.
We assume that the Apple XCODE is now automatically installed on your mac. Otherwise, you will have to download and install the mac XCODE system, which includes the C compiler. Without a C compiler, you will get a “Command not found” error when you type
cc at the command terminal.
.exefiles from the
Open up the file Makefile in the
src/ folder and add
# at the beginning of the following line to comment it out:
CFLAGS = -O4 -funroll-loops -fomit-frame-pointer -finline-functions
#at the beginning of the line for either G5 or intel, depending on your machine, to uncomment the line.
For Mac OS X G5 uncomment the following line:
CFLAGS = -mcpu=G5 -O4 -funroll-loops -fomit-frame-pointer -finline-functions
For Mac OS X intel uncomment the following line:
CFLAGS = -march=pentium-m -O4 -funroll-loops -fomit-frame-pointer -finline-functions
VERY IMPORTANT: Please save the file and compile after the programs are successfully compiled, delete the
.o files and move the executables to the
bin/ folder as follows:
rm *.o mv baseml basemlg codeml pamp evolver yn00 chi2 ../bin
You may want to
mv the executables into the
bin/ folder on your accounts rather than the PAML main folder. And finally, if your current folder is not on your search path, you will have to add
./ in front of the executable file name; that is, use
./codeml to run
CODEML. See the notes for UNIX systems above.
IMPORTANT: Please note that the latest PAML version is on the PAML GitHub repository here. The notes below are for an earlier version, PAML v4.9j. If you would like to use the latest version on Windows but you cannot compile the latest PAML release following the details above, please post an issue here so we can assist you with this matter.
To download the executable files for an earlier version of PAML, PAML v4.9j, please download the compressed file here.
paml4.9j.tgzon your local disk. Make sure the extension of the file (
tgz) did not change with the download.
paml4.9j/bin/(you may see
/to separate the directories, i.e.,
paml4.9j\bin\). You may want to create a folder for local programs and move the PAML executables there. Below, you can find some notes for doing that:
C:\Users\Ziheng(please, replace this path with your own path, which will contain your username and your folders names). On Vista or Windows 7, this tends to be the default user folder. On Windows XP, you may see something like
Settings\Ziheng(again, this is an example, you may see your username instead).
bininside your user folder. In this example,
C:\Users\Ziheng\bin. If you are the superuser/administrator of your PC, you may prefer the folder
C:\bin. Whatever you choose, remember that this will be the folder for holding executable programs.
User variables, now double-click on the variable Path to edit, then on the variable value field, and then move the cursor to the beginning. Now, insert the name of our program folder (e.g., in our example,
C:\Bin, but please modify according to the folder you have created). Note that you will see a semicolon, which is used to separate the folder names. Be careful not to introduce any errors and keep using the semicolon if you need to include more folders. To save the new settings, please click OK.
chi2.exe, etc.) from the
paml4.9j\bin\folder to the local programs folder you will have created (e.g.,
C:\Users\Ziheng\Bin\in this example). After this, you can execute any of these programs from a command prompt wherever you are. If you like, you can include the version number by renaming the executable files (e.g.,
codeml4.exe, respectively). In that way, you will then run the program from the command line by typing
codeml, which is useful if you have several versions installed on your PC
Last, you can run a PAML program. Avoid double-clicking the program names from Windows Explorer or will not see any error messages on the screen when the program crashes. Instead, please start a command prompt box where you want to start the PAML program you want to run. For example,
Start - Programs - Accessories - Command Prompt, or
Start - Run and then type
OK. You can right-click on the title bar and choose
Properties to change the size, font, or colour of the window. Now,
cd to the folder which contains your input files to tun the PAML program you want and type the name of its executable file (e.g.,
mcmctree, etc.). Here, we show how you can
cd to the PAML folder (suppose you have extracted the archive into
C:\Programs\paml4.9j\) and run the
codeml program using the default files.
C: cd \Programs\paml4.9j\ codeml
Because there is no executable file called
codeml.bat, etc.) in your current folder, the OS will look for it in the folders listed in the environment variable path that you will have already defined. Therefore, the OS will find and execute the file
codeml.exe in the
C:\Users\Ziheng\Bin folder, which is the path that we exported in the environment variable in the example above (you will have a different path according to your username and the folder you chose). If you want, you could also use the absolute path to run the PAML programs, although you will need to remember this path! You could type something like the following:
codeml analyses use amino acid distance (e.g.,
grantham.dat file in the
dat directory of the PAML software) or substitution rate matrices (e.g.,
wag.dat file in the
dat directory of the PAML software). You will then need to copy the necessary file to your current folder or specify its correct path in the control file to run the program. If the path is not correct or not found, the program will ask you to input the full path to that file until found.
A graphical user interface called
PAML-X has been written by Bo Xu of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. This GUI is written in Qt and should run on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux, although the versions for Mac OS X and Linux may not be well tested.
Download and install PAML (see above) and also
PAML-X (links below). If you want to use pamlX1.3.1, you will need to use PAML V4.9 or later. When you run
PAML-X for the first time, you need to specify the PAML folder name.
NOTE: While the Windows executable seems to work fine for Windows users, some Linux/UNIX users may experience issues when compiling the GUI due to incompatibilities with the Qt package. If you are one of these users, you may want to try the following:
Remove other Qt packages if you had installed them as it may cause issues to have different versions. You can do this via Synaptic or by typing:
sudo apt-get --purge remove qt*
Then, install Qt4:
sudo apt-get install qt4-default
After that, you may want to move to the PAML-X folder with the source code and type:
qmake pamlX.pro make
If there are no issues, the software should start compiling and, at the end, you should see an executable file called “pamlX” appear.
If you use PAML, please cite the following:
If you use
MCMCtree, please cite the following papers if you have used/run…
mcmc3rR package if you use it (tutorial here).
MCMCtreecan be found here.
There are several tutorials for specific PAML programs:
MCMCtreeto date genome-scale datasets: dos Reis and Yang (2019) Bayesian molecular clock dating using genome-scale datasets. In: Anisimova (ed.) Evolutionary Genomics. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1910. Humana, New York, NY.
mcmc3rR package to prepare your datasets before running
MCMCtreefor the following purposes:
MCMCtreeoutput to estimate the marginal likelihood and compute Bayes factors here. This tutorial also describes how to perform parametric bootstrap of posterior probabilities.
MCMCtree tutorialscan be found here. Please note that they were written with an old version of
MCMCtreeand hence some options might be out of date (e.g.,
rootAgeno longer need to be included in the control file). Nevertheless, the tutorials can be consulted for theoretical and technical information about the following analyses:
MCMCtreeusing the exact likelihood calculation.
MCMCtreeusing the approximate likelihood calculation with both nucleotide and protein data.
infinitesitesto estimate divergence times with infinitely many sites.
positive-selectionGitHub repository here.